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Vitamin A deficiency among children in Botswana, South Africa, and Zimbabwe: the importance of indicator-specific cut-offs. To test the validity of recommended cut-offs for vitamin A deficiency in determining clinical status, we compared these criteria with 2 biochemical measures of vitamin A status in children. We recruited 798 children in selected areas of Botswana, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. Using retinol and retinol binding protein (RBP), we calculated low vitamin A status according to the World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and National Academy of Sciences (NAS) guidelines. In addition, children were examined for clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency (VAD). The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among children by biochemical and clinical criteria ranged from 8.6% to 18.9%. The sensitivity and specificity of the WHO, UNICEF, and NAS cut-offs for clinical signs of VAD were 15.1% and 96.7%, 20.2% and 97.0%, and 11.4% and 98.6%, respectively. Of the 798 children recruited, 5 (0.6%) had edema, 7 (0.9%) had scaly skin, 12 (1.5%) had enlarged tonsils, 15 (1.9%) had conjunctivitis, 24 (3.1%) had cough, and 88 (11.4%) had a positive history of acute respiratory infection. Based on WHO, UNICEF, and NAS cut-offs, 47.6%, 38.4%, and 38.5% of children had clinical evidence of VAD, respectively. Using biochemical criteria, the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was 33.8%. As expected, the number of children in the VAD group increased when the cut-off for vitamin A deficiency was raised, i.e., 25% and 41.4% by biochemical and clinical criteria, respectively. Based on these results, we recommend that vitamin A status be assessed using serum retinol as the best measure of vitamin A status in childhood, and that the WHO criteria for vitamin A deficiency be used to define severe VAD in children.Q: Add function to class definition? I am trying to add a function to my class definition, but when I run it, I get an error saying: Error 1 Invalid token '(' in class, struct, or interface member declaration This is what I'm trying to ac619d1d87


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